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State Uttaranchal
District(s) Dehradun District
Coordinates 30.19° N 78.04° E
Area 3088 km²
Elevation 635 m
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
Population (2005) 1,025,680
Density /km²
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Dehradun is located on a plateau at a height of 640 meters, home of the Indian Military Academy and the headquarters of the Survey of India, an office which was established by Colonel George Everest, after whom the world's highest mountain has been named.

Ordinarily the term Doon meals valley. But in current colloquial usage it stands for the valley in which is located the City of Dehradun. The city lies within the lower scapes of the Himalayas and Shivaliks to the South and within the confines of the river Ganga to the East and the river Yamuna to the West..

Dehradun is the capital city of Uttaranchal state of India and is also the headquarters of Dehradun District. It is located in the Doon valley, 230 kilometers north of India's capital New Delhi and the Delhi metro. It is surrounded by the Himalayan mountains in the north, Shivalik Hills in the south, the river Ganges in the east, and the river Yamuna in the west. The water divide of Ganga and Yamuna passes through the city. It is also located on the northern side of the fertile Gangetic plains of India. Before the creation of Uttaranchal on November 9th 2000, Dehradun was a part of the historic state Uttar Pradesh. Neighbouring cities and towns include Haridwar, Rishikesh, Roorkee, Mussoorie and Saharanpur. A popular item that has made Dehradun known across the world is "Dehradooni basmati rice", which is grown in the fields surrounding the neighbouring Saharanpur.


 dehradun
History  

The earliest tangible evidence of the history of Dehradun dates back to 300 BC, as indicated by a rock inscription at Kalsi, discovered in 1860. The inscriptions located at the northern outskirts of the city are attributed to King Ashoka. In the inscription, there are 14 edicts carved on a rock and adjacent to these is the site where Raja Shilvarma of the Vrisheri dynasty made three horse sacrifices during his rule in the 3rd century BC. At the site, large inscribed bricks are arranged to form the shape of a bird with a fire altar in the middle. There is no evidence of any kind of quite a long period after that, and the next prominent rulers of the valley were the Katyuris of Garhwal. Next, this stronghold of the Katyuri dynasty, passed into the hands of the Sikhs and Mughals and later, the Gorkhas of Nepal ruled here for a long time till the British came into the picture. For many centuries the region formed part of the Garhwal kingdom with some interruption from the Rohillas of the adjoining plains of Rohilkhand. For about two decades till 1815 it was under the occupation of the Gorkhas. In April 1815 Gorkhas were ousted from Garhwal region and Garhwal was annexed by the British. In that year the area now comprising tehsil Dehra Dun was added to district Saharanpur. In 1825, however, it was transferred to the Kumaon Division. In 1828, Dehra Dun and Jaunsar Bhabar were placed under the charge of a separate Deputy Commissioner and in 1829, the Dehra Dun district was transferred from the Kumaon Division to the Meerut Division. In 1842, Dun was attached to Saharanpur district and placed under an officer subordinate to the Collector of the district but since 1871 it is being administered as separate district. In 1968 the district was taken out from Meerut division and included in the Garhwal Division. According to the local legend, 'camp' refers to Ram Rai, son of Shri Hari Rai, the 7th guru of the Sikhs. Ram Rai founded a Gurudwara here, which is a pilgrimage centre for the Sikhs.

During British rule, Dehradun used to be the summer base for the Viceroy's bodyguards. In course of time, it was converted into an excellent centre for education and developed as a military cantonment.

Dehradun has a long and rich history. In Skanda Purana, this place has been mentioned as a part of Kedar Khand. By the end of the third century, it became a part of King Ashoka’s vast empire. In subsequent centuries, it was a part of the Garhwal kingdom. In the beginning of the 19th century, for two decades, it was ruled by the Gorkhas. The Gorkha regime came to an end when the British captured this region in 1815.

Dehradun is known as the gateway to the majestic Himalayas. The mountain range lies to the north of the city while the sacred Ganga and Yamuna rivers embrace it from the east and west. Ganga enters Dehradun from the east at Tapovan and flows south-west to reach Haridwar via Raiwala and Rishikesh. Yamuna flows from the west down towards the south. The other rivers of the area are Asan, Tons, Bindal and Rispana.

The entire district is spread over in an area of 1800 km², extending from the Himalayan chain in the north to the Shivalik range in the south, and from the banks of the Ganga in the east to the Ghats of Yamuna in the west. The fertile alluvial soil along with inundated water supply makes it a farmer's paradise. The climate here is temperate. Summers are moderate and winters are cool. However, at times, the mercury drops below the freezing point. The average rainfall in the area is around 2000 mm.

-- It is also believed that in the Vedic times, the Garhwal Mandal, of which Dehradun is a part, was known as the Kedar Khand. Legend has it that Guru Dronacharaya, a Brahmin teacher of the Kauravas and Pandavas in Mahabharat and son of the mighty river Ganges, set up his ashram or 'dera' here. Eventually, the Dron Ashram came to be known as Dehradun. According to another legend, Lord Rama and his brother undertook a penance in Dehradun for killing Ravana, the demon king of Lanka.

Following a war between the Gorkhas and the British, the Treaty of Sugauli was signed in 1816 that established the current boundaries of Nepal. Garhwal and Kumaon regions including Dehradun were ceded to the British. While territories west of the Alaknanda were returned to the Garhwal Raja now established at Tehri, Eastern Garhwal (later British Garhwal) and Dehradun were retained under direct British control.

Dehradun is also an important city for the Sikhs as one of their gurus took refuge in Dehradun in the seventeenth century. At that time, the Sikh community had doubted the credentials of Guru Ram Rai and drove him out so that he had to set up his camp or dera in the city. Today, the city has the Ram Rai Durbar, a gurdwara named after the guru.

During World War II, its facilities included an internment camp for Axis nationals. (Heinrich Harrer's escape from it launched his experiences in Tibet.)

 
Climate  

Dehradun has typical weather of a north Indian city: cold winters, hot summer, rainy monsoon season and a balmy spring. The winter ranges from November to March is cold, temperature touching freezing occasionally. The months of December and January are the coldest due to winter rains, coinciding with snow-fall in the nearby mountains ranges. Overall the winters are dry. The spring, lasting from March to April, are very pleasant. Almost overnight, with almost no warning, sometime in April spring leads to onset of summer months. Summer last from April-May to July, with fairly high temperatures (sometimes even higher than 40 °C). Monsoon months, ranging from July-September, are a welcome change after the hot summer as they bring the monsoon rains from Arabian Sea (south-west of Indian subcontinent). The monsoon months are extremely humid specially July and early August. A brief autumn, between September and October, leads to winter months. There are so special changes in the autumn season except for mild weather. The region around Dehradun does not experience the falling of leaves, typical of cold regions.

 
Tourism  

Is a fortress like structure seems to have been built 300 years ago during the reign of Aurangzeb, when the Guru migrated to the valley and pitched his tent there. The Guru had a huge richly decorated flag and the locality around it was called the Jhanda Mohalla, the nucleus around which the new city of Dehradun gradually grew.

Is the only institute of its kind in Asia. It is located near the Indian Military Academy.

located 8 kms from the city near the cantonment is one of nature's phenomenon to confuse man, a stream of water suddenly disappears from sight and a few yards away appears again in a gushing stream. The cave is accessible by bus till Anarwala, a distance of 6 kms and the rest of the 2 kms have to be traveled on foot.

also located 8 kms away in Premnagar is well worth a visit.

about 14 kms away is a place which has natural sulphur springs.

12 kms on the route to Rishikesh is a popular shrine.

on way to Mussoorie is pleasant place set amidst sal forest.


 

 

 

forest research institute, dehradun

 

forest research institute, dehradun

 

sahtradhara, dehradun

Reaching Dehradun  

There is an airport called Jolly Grant in Dehradun which lies unused.

Dehradun is the terminus of the Northern Railway well connected to places like Amritsar, Howrah, Bombay, Delhi, Lucknow and Varanasi etc. A Delhi Dehradun Shatabdi Express has recently been introduced.

Dehradun is very well connected with highways to Delhi and other cities of Uttar Pradesh. It is also the Gateway city to the hilly regions of Mussoorie and beyond and is connected with them with good all weather roads.

 
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